The Only List of Ophthalmic Mnemonics You’ll Ever Need

by | Oct 27, 2018

We’ve scoured the web and compiled an awesome list of eye and ophthalmic mnemonics to help you remember important information for tests and for the rest of your career.  Use this as a quick reference guide for a variety of ocular conditions.

Orbits

Glaucoma

Optic Nerve

Contact Lens

Sclera

Nystagmus

Cornea

Lens

Other

Iris

Retina

ORBITAL FORAMEN

Nerves passing through the superior orbital fissure with LUSCIOUS FRENCH TARTS SAT NAKED WITH ANTICIPATION

  • Lacrimal nerve
  • Frontal nerve
  • Trochlear nerve
  • Superior division of oculomotor nerve
  • Abducens nerve
  • Nasociliary nerve (branch of ophthalmic nerve)
  • Inferior division of oculomotor nerve

CONTACT LENS

LARS

  • Left Add, Right Subtract (for contact lens astigmatism axis changes)

 

SAM FAP

  • Steep add minus
  • Flat add plus

CORNEA

Stromal dystrophies with MARILYN MONROE ALWAYS GETS HER MAN IN LOS ANGELES CALIFORNIA

  • Macular dystrophy – Mucopolysaccharide – Alcian blue
  • Granular dystrophy – Hyaline materials – Masson trichrome
  • Lattice dystrophy – Amyloid – Congo Red

Keratoconus systemic associations with ABCDEF

  • Atopy
  • Bones (osteogenesis imperfecta)
  • Crouzon’s syndrome
  • Down’s syndrome
  • Ehler’s Danlos syndrome
  • Fingers (Marfan’s)

Keratoconus ocular findings with CONES

  • Central scarring & Fleischer ring
  • Oil drop reflex / Oedema (hydrops)
  • Nerves prominent
  • Excessive bulging of lower lid on downgaze (Munson’s sign)
  • Striae (Vogt’s)

Congenital cloud cornea with STUMPED

  • Sclerocornea
  • Tears in Descmet’s membrane (“Buphthalmos(horizontal haab’s stria) & Birth trauma”)
  • Uterine infections e.g rubellosis
  • Mucoployscharidosis
  • Peter’s anomaly
  • Endothelial dystrophy (CHED)
  • Dermoid

Whorl Keratopathy associations with ABCDEF

  • Arthritis (diclofenac)
  • Breast Cancer (Tamoxifen)
  • Cardiac (amiodarone)
  • Dementia / Depression (Chlorpromazine)
  • Enzyme deficiency (see F)
  • Fabry’s Disease

Tearing and Excessive Larcimation with FACE

  • Foreign body or corneal abrasions
  • Acute glaucoma
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Emotion

IRIS

Reiter’s Syndrome

  • Can’t see can’t pee can’t climb a tree

Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome with ICE

  • Iris Naevus
  • Chandler Syndrome
  • Essential Iris Atrophy

GLAUCOMA

Angle structures with I CAN’T SEE THIS STUFF

  • Iris
  • Ciliary (body)
  • Scleral Spur
  • Trabecular (meshwork)
  • Schwalbe’s Line

Trabecular pigmentation causes with PIGMENT

  • Pseudoexfoliation & Pigment dispersion syndrome
  • Iritis
  • Glaucoma (Post angle closure Glaucoma)
  • Melanosis of angle (oculodermal melanosis)
  • Endocrine (Diabetes & Addison’s Syndrome)
  • Naevus (Cogan-reese syndrome)
  • Trauma

Secondary Glaucoma with NIPPLES

  • Neovascular
  • Iridoschisis
  • PXF
  • Pigmentary
  • Lens (phacolytic/phacomorphic)
  • Iridocorneal Endothelial syndromes
  • Seclusio pupillae (in iritis)
  • +trauma (angle recession)

Neovascular glaucoma etiology with R(3)UBEITIC

  • Retinopathy
  • Retinal vein occlusion (CRVO)
  • Retinal detachment
  • Uveitis
  • BRVO
  • Eale’s Disease
  • Ocular Ischemic Syndrome
  • Trauma
  • Intraocular tumours (choroidal melanoma)
  • Carotid Cavernous Fistula

SCLERA

Blue Sclera with HOPES

  • High myopia
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
  • Ehlers-danlos syndrome
  • Scleritis(healed)
  • Bupthalmos

Posterior Scleritis causes with POST SCLER

  • Proptosis
  • Ophthalmoplegia
  • Swelling of disc
  • Thickening of sclera (US/CT) & T sign (fluid in sub-Tenon’s space)
  • Subretinal exudates
  • Choroidal folds
  • Exudative RD
  • Ring choroidal detachment

LENS

Cataract causes with ABCDE

  • Aging
  • Bang: trauma, other injuries (eg infrared)
  • Congenital
  • Diabetes and other metabolic disturbances (eg steroids)
  • Eye diseases: glaucoma, uveitis

Cataracts caused by drugs with ABCD

  • Amiodarone
  • Busulphan
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Dexamethasone

Ectopia lentis causes with ECTOPIC M&M

  • Eye degeneration (phthisis)
  • Choroidal tumours
  • Trauma
  • Overstretched zonules (buphthalmos / megalocornea)
  • AR with pupil ectopy
  • Isolated AR
  • Cystathione beta-synthase deficiency (homocystinuria)
  • Marfans
  • Weill-Marchesani syndrome

RETINA

Angioid Streaks with PEPSI LITE

  • Pagets
  • Ehlers Danlos
  • Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
  • Sickle Cell
  • Idiopathic
  • Lead poisoning
  • Increased Phosphate
  • Thalassemia,  Tuberous sclerosis
  • Epilepsy

Color blindness types with TuB PaR DoG

  • Tritoanopes = Blue
  • Protoanopes = Red
  • Deutroanopes= Green

Cherry red spot on retina with CHERRY TREES NEVER GROW TALL

  • Central retinal artery occlusion
  • Tay-Sachs disease
  • Niemann-Pick disease
  • Gaucher’s disease
  • Trauma (Berlin’s edema)

Retinal detachment treatment with 6S’s

  • Sealing of retinal breaks
  • SRF drainage (SRF is Subretinal fluid)
  • Scleral buckling
  • SF6 pneumatic retinopexy
  • Sectioning vitreous (vitrectomy)
  • laSer prophylaxis

Retinoblastoma classification with ABCDE

  • SmAll (<3mm)
  • Bigger (>3mm, macular, subretinal fluid)
  • Contained Seeds
  • Diffuse seeds (>3mm)
  • Extensive (>50% globe, opaque media, NVI)

Choroidal Melanoma with TO FIND SMALL OCULAR MELANOMAS USE HELPFUL HINTS DAILY

  • Thickness (> 2mm)
  • Fluid subretinally
  • Symptoms (flashes/floaters/visual loss)
  • Orange pigment/lipofuscin
  • Margins within 3 mm of ONH
  • Ultrasound Hollowness
  • Halo absence
  • Drusen absence

OPTIC NERVE

Optic atrophy causes with ICING

  • Ischaemia
  • Compressed nerve
  • Intracranial pressure
  • Neuritis history
  • Glaucoma

Optic neuropathy with NIGHT TIC

  • Neuritis
  • Ischemic
  • Granulomatous (infiltration)
  • Hereditary
  • Traumatic
  • Toxic
  • Irradiation
  • Compressive

Optic neuropathy signs with PLAC

  • Pale disc
  • Loss of visual acuity/Loss of red colour vision
  • Afferent pupillary defect
  • Central scotoma

NYSTAGMUS

Congenital nystagmus with CONGENITAL

  • Convergence & eye closure dampens
  • Oscillopsia absent
  • Null zone that is present,increases foveation time which results in increased acuity
  • Gaze poisition doesnot change the horizontal direction of nystagmus
  • Equal amplitude and frequency in each eye
  • Near acuity is good
  • Inversion of optokinetic response
  • Turning of head to acheive null point
  • Abolishes in sleep
  • Latent (occlusion) nystagmus occurs

Downbeat nystagmus causes with DoWNBEAT

  • Degeneration, Demyelination or Drugs (Lithium)
  • Wernicke’s Encephalopathy
  • Neoplasm or paraneoplastic cerebeller degeneration
  • Brainstem disease (Syringomyelia)
  • Encephalitis
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
  • Trauma or Toxin

OTHER

History questions with FLORIDA

  • Frequency
  • Location
  • Onset
  • Relief
  • Intensity
  • Duration
  • Associated Symptoms

Differentials diagnosis for ANY condition with VINDICATE

  • Vascular
  • Inflammatory/Infectious
  • Neoplastic
  • Degenerative/Demyelinating
  • Iatrogenic
  • Compressive
  • Autoimmune/Allergic
  • Traumatic
  • Endocrine
Did we miss your favorite ophthalmic mnemonic?  If so, comment below!  We’ll be updating the information periodically to ensure this remains the most comprehensive list of eye and ocular mnemonics on the web.

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